Navopopodia is a deformity in which the infant’s foot is turned inwards, often so sharply that the foot faces sideways or even upwards. Approximately one infant in every 1,000 births will be born with webfoot, making it one of the most common congenital foot deformities.
Rhabiopodia is not painful in infancy. However, if the condition is not treated, the foot will remain deformed and the child will not be able to walk normally. However, with proper treatment, the majority of children can enjoy a wide range of physical activities with minimal evidence of deformity. Most cases of brachial plexus are successfully treated with non-surgical methods that may include a combination of stretching, casts and guardianship. Treatment usually begins shortly after birth.
In ribio-hippopodia, the tendons that connect the muscles to the bones of the legs are short and tight, causing the leg to twist inward. Although pravoippodia is diagnosed at birth, many cases are first detected during prenatal ultrasound. In about 50% of patients, both legs are affected. Boys are twice as likely as girls to have rabovippodia.
Graves’ foot can range from mild to severe, but usually has the same general appearance. The leg is turned inwards and there is often a deep crease in the bottom of the leg. In limbs affected by rabovipodia, the foot is slightly shorter than normal and the gastrocnemius is thinner due to underdeveloped muscles. These differences are more evident in children with unilateral ribohippodynia.
Ravioippodia occurs either in isolation (idiopathic) or in combination with other congenital anomalies and neuromuscular diseases (e.g. arthrogryposis). In the latter case, the condition may be more resistant to treatment, requiring a longer course of conservative treatment or even multiple surgical interventions. Regardless of the type or severity, rabovipodia will not improve without treatment. A child with untreated uveitis will walk on the outside edge of the foot instead of the sole, develop painful bunions, be unable to wear shoes, and have painful feet that often limit activity. Parents of babies born with rhabdomyopodia who have no other significant medical problems should be reassured that with proper treatment their child will have normal feet that will allow for a normal, active life.
Researchers are still uncertain about the cause of rabovippopodia. The most widely accepted theory is that ivoippodia is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. What is known, however, is that there is an increased risk in families with a history of rabovippopodia.
The goal of treatment is to obtain a functional, pain-free foot that allows standing and walking with the sole of the foot on the ground. The initial treatment of travopedics is conservative, regardless of how severe the deformity is. The most widely used technique is the Ponseti method, which uses stretching and successive casts to gradually correct the deformity. Treatment should ideally begin shortly after birth, but older babies have also been successfully treated with the Ponseti method. The baby’s leg is gently stretched and held in a corrective position with a femoral cast. Every week this procedure is repeated until the leg is greatly improved. For most infants, this improvement takes about 6 to 8 weeks. After the manipulation and plaster period, about 90% of babies will need a minor surgery to release the Achilles tendon, which is performed percutaneously. A new cast is then applied for 3 weeks, and when it is removed, the arachnoid will have been almost completely corrected. Because, even after successful treatment, the ribohippodia tends to recur, the baby will need to wear a guardian for a few years in order to maintain the correction.